Remove suspended solids, reactive silica and other suspension matters by clarification and filtration methods
Remove suspended solids, reactive silica and other suspension matters by clarification and filtration methods
Combination of membrane based technology and resin based technology to produce DM water / Ultra pure water.
Remove calcium and magnesium in water and waste water by resin filtration method.
Convert raw water in to drinking water quality by filtration and membrane process
UF membranes rejects or separate high molecular weight solutes as well as suspended solids, colloids, and macromolecules Reversed osmosis is the modern process technology used to remove Total Dissolved Solids.
UF membranes rejects or seperate high molecular weight solutes as well as suspended solids, colloids, and macromolecules. They readily pass water and low MW dissolved solids such as salts and sugars
Reversed osmosis is the modern process technology used to remove Total Dissolved Solids
Zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) is a water treatment process in which all waste water is purified and recycled. ZLD is an advanced wastewater treatment method that includes ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation /crystallization
A combination of activated sludge process and membrane filtration
Ion exchange is a resin based process, the inner bids of resin carry either positive or negative ion which can be exchanged with the ion of incoming water. The dissolved salt or solids comprising of positive or negative ions are passed through cation and anion resins to achieve desired results.
Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins. It is widely used in the food & beverage, hydrometallurgy, metals finishing, chemical & petrochemical, pharmaceutical, sugar & sweeteners, ground & potable water, nuclear, softening & industrial water, semiconductor, power, and a host of other industries.
Demineralization is often a term used interchangeably with deionization. Demineralization is essentially removing all the minerals that can be found in water. This process is usually done when the water is to be used for chemicals processes and the minerals present may interfere with the other chemicals. For eg. all chemistic and beauty products have to be made with demineralized water for this reason. With the demineralization process, the water is "softened" replacing the undesired minerals with different salts (NaCl). Demineralized water has a higher conductivity than deionized water.
Mixed bed deionization is a mixture of cation and anion resin combined in a single ion exchange column. With proper pretreatment, product water purified from a single pass through a mixed bed ion exchange column is the purest that can be made. Most commonly, mixed bed demineralizers are used for final water polishing to clean the last few ions within water prior to use.
Depth filters are the variety of filters that use a porous filtration medium to retain particles throughout the medium, rather than just on the surface of it. These filters are commonly used when the water to be filtered contains a load of particles because, in comparison to the other types of filters, they can retain a large mass of particles before becoming clogged.
Depth filtration works by collecting particles within the filter media and passing a clean outlet flow of the fluid. Depth filtration typified by multiple porous layers with depth are used to capture the solid contaminants from the liquid phase.
Due to the tortuous and channel-like nature of the filtration medium, the particles are retained throughout the medium within its structure, as opposed to on the surface. Depth filters pose the added advantage that they are able to attain a high quantity of particles without compromising the separation efficiency. Depth filters are commonly characterized by the sand filter and have the ability to be used with substantially higher filter rates than in other designs. It is these characteristics that have cemented the use and popularity of depth filters as an effective medium for separation. With ongoing advances in process technologies, depth filter designs are continuously adapting and improving to meet the needs of industry.
Micron filtration is to segregate or separate particulate matter based on the size of the particulate matter. Sewing, screening or surface filtration are also the types of surface filtration based on size of the particulate matter. When the requirement of filtration is less than 0.2 microns, then membrane filtration is also used. In water and waste water treatment, this type of filters are very critical. It acts as a guard filter to further membrane treatment. Micron / membrane filtration also restricts the presence of the organics, bacteria and virus.
Micron Catridge filters restricts, as per its rating, up to 0.2 microns of particulate matter in water. Catridges could be of inert polymer material or of steel. Catridge filters are of two types, absolute filters and nominal filters. Absolute rating filters 99.9% are of particulate matter above the rated microns. Nominal Filter between 80 - 90 % of particulate matter above the rated micron. The major use of Micron Catradige filters is that of pre / guard filter of ultra filteration and Reverse Osmosis. For removal of bacteria and pyrogens for high purity water utilised for pharmaceutical industry.
Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure forces a liquid against a semi permeable membrane. Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane.
Ultrafiltration technology produces superior quality water by removing virtually all harmful pathogens and suspended solids. Ultrafiltration membranes are designed for Cross Flow and Dead End filtration. In Cross Flow filtration a portion of the feed passes through the membrane and is called permeate. The rejected materials are flushed away in a stream called the concentrate. Cross Flow membrane filtration uses a high cross flow rate to enhance permeate passage and reduce membrane fouling.
Hollow fibre membranes also have the capability to be backwashed, where filtered water is pushed backwards through the membrane to remove accumulated solids on the membrane surface. Ultrafiltration systems provide flexibility to operate in a range of conditions that can be optimized for a specific water source to reduce operating costs.
Osmosis is defined as a water with low concentration, passes through a semi permeable membrane and forms a equilibrium with water of higher concentration available on the other side of the membrane. The pressure at which this phenomenon takes place is called Osmotic Pressure. For purification of water, the phenomenon is reversed i.e., pressure higher than osmotic pressure is applied to the concentrated liquid which will pass through a semi permeable membrane resulting into a purer form of water/liquid. A Reverse Osmosis plant comprises of membranes made of polyaaid, etc. The spirally bound membranes are subjected to pressure to complete the process of Reverse Osmosis. They are typically used whenever salt removal or deionization is required. Reverse osmosis removes more than 97%-99% of the total dissolved solids along with organics, bacteria and other particulates. Reverso Osmosis is becoming more and more popular viz a viz ion exchange process because of input TDS restrictions in ion exchange and ease of operation
Coagulation is predominantly used in effluent water treatment processes for separation of free oil, solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. The negative electrical charge on particles are neutralized, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart.
Clari Floccution is a combination of clarifier and flocculation. There is a separate chamber provided for dossing flocculants in the unit. There are many types of Clari Flocculators like Central drive, peripheral drive, agitator gate type etc.
An oil skimmer is a device that separates free and floating type oil from wastewater/ effluent. A common application is removing oil floating on water. Oil skimmers are different from oil water separators and the primary intension of skimmer is to skim-off the oil layer which is separated by phase separation process which is similar to oil water separators.
HRSCC uses turbulence and high velocity to reduce silica load in the water apart from deduction of suspended impurities and turbidity. HRSCC requires lesser area and process time and thereby, reduces the initial civil cost of the plant.
As a special treatment for oil removal from oil rich effluent additional equipment are employed.
The conventional treatment like coagulation / flocculation becomes the primary treatment for oil rich effluent.
TPI / CPI , followed by IGF / Dissolved Air Flotation are installed to treat emulsified oil. The above water is then treated in a Walnut shell filter which reduces the oil content effluent to around 10ppm.
Ultrafiltration is the final / polishing treatment given to the above treated effluent. The elaborated treatment as above enables the water / effluent to be the standard for the injection.
An oil skimmer is a device that separates free and floating type oil from wastewater/ effluent. A common application is removing oil floating on water. Oil skimmers are different from oil water separators and the primary intension of skimmer is to skim-off the oil layer which is separated by phase separation process which is similar to oil water separators. The skimming units are broadly available in two types i.e. Manual skimmers and mechanical skimmers. The manual skimmers are generally available in SS 304, CI or MS EP construction MOC or can be customized as per requirement in civil - RCC. Mechanical oil skimmers are units attached with various form of skimming unit like Belt type, Tube type, Rotating Disc type, Funnel type, slotted pipe type, floating suction type, and drum type etc. The type of skimmer is selected as per adequate application and type of oil.
The activated sludge process is a process for treating sewage and industrial wastewaters using air and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.
In a sewage (or industrial wastewater) treatment plant, the activated sludge process is a biological process that can be used for one or several of the following purposes: oxidizing carbonaceous biological matter, oxidizing nitrogenous matter: mainly ammonium and nitrogen in biological matter, removing nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus).
Extended aeration is aerobic biological treatment process used in wastewater treatment. This process is principally modified version of most commonly used and proven technology i.e. activated sludge process. Extended aeration systems are simpler in construction and operation. The wastewater is brought directly to the aeration basin after screening and grit removal. In aeration basin the aeration is carried out for extended period of time thus mineralizing the sludge solids sufficiently hence the sludge produced is completely digested. Extended aeration is a method of sewage treatment using acclimatized active biomass, the oxygen for bioprocess is provided from mechanical aeration system of blowers and fine bubble diffusers. The suitable ratio of food to microorganism (F : M) is maintained for effective process operation. The microorganisms maintained in reactor carries out digestion of oxygen demanding impurities present in wastewater and hence the treated water is with very low concentration of biological and chemical oxygen demand. The clarifier or tube settler downstream is used to carrying out solid- liquid separation, settled sludge at bottom of reactor is partly recycled back for process, excessive sludge is sent for sludge dewatering treatment. The ability of absorbing flow and qualitative shock loads due to higher detention time makes it preferred and reliable treatment process. This type of treatment process is very commonly used worldwide and in major industrial applications of wastewater/ effluent treatment.
The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) is a derivative of activated sludge process designed to operate under non-steady state conditions. Like extended aeration or other activated sludge process it involves the biological process, microorganisms and mechanical aeration system for aeration along with air distributors and diffusers. However the major difference in involved is in operation of treatment which is carried out in batches in cyclic manner. In SBR configuration all related processes of Aeration, Settling, Decanting are carried out in same basin and eventually this reduces construction cost which is very essential in larger systems. The most important component of SBR process is decanting system. The various type of decanters are used for process like Floating gravity type, rake arm type, floating funnel type and slotted pipe type decanters. The process is operated in batch manner and hence it is vary suitable for industrial wastewater and high flow domestic wastewater. The added advantages are it provides BNR ( biological nutrients removal) and completely digested sludge which makes sludge treatment process easier.
SBR is modern wastewater treatment system which involves use of automation in operation. The control of cyclic batch operation is programmed in PLC or SCADA. The instruments involved in process helps to transmit appropriate signal and control the system. The automation of system reduces the number of operator skill and attention requirement and hence improves output quality of treated effluent.
Sparkle offers unique design of sequential batch reactor decanting system which involves simple automation and gravity based decanting system. The power requirement for decanting operation is eliminated in this design.
Advantages: economical construction due to single tank design. The system can absorb higher shock loads. Provides 95-98% removal in BOD.
Wastewater treatment processes in which the microorganisms and bacteria treating the wastes are attached to the media in the reactor. The wastes being treated flow over the media. Trickling filters and rotating biological contactors are attached growth reactors. These reactors can be used for BOD removal, nitrification, and denitrification.
Advantage of SAFF process
Processes like Sand Filter /Ultrafiltration / Reverse Osmosis are the pressure driven process, whereas electrically driven approach encompasses electro-dialysis & electro di ionization. This Electro di Ionization process is generally applied when aim is to remove the ions (Cation & Anion) from water, & this is been achieved through the selective control & transport of ion species.